Photometer for the Determination of Copper in Wine
Grapes normally accumulate only a small amount of copper by natural translocation from roots. Unless exposed to significant airborne pollution or vineyard sprays, increased concentrations in wine result from contamination during post fermentation processing, like contact with non stainless steel  equipment and as impurities in fining agents and filter media.
The copper concentration in wine is normally low, less that 0.10 to 0.30 mg/L (ppm), because excess copper is precipitated during fermentation due to adsorption onto the yeast cells. This adsorption and precipitation can reduce the initial copper concentration with 40 to 89%.

Photometer for the Determination of Iron in Wine
Trace iron concentrations in wine are beneficial for enzyme activity, as a stabilizer, and as a functional component for proteins.
At higher concentrations it alters the redox potential, in favoring oxidation, affecting sensory characteristics and participating in the formation of complexes with tannin and phosphates resulting in instabilities (casse).
Most of the iron present in wine is present in the ferrous Fe (II) state. The ratio of the Fe (II)/Fe (III) depends on the oxidation state of wine. If Fe (III) is formed, it can bind with phosphates that are normally present in wine.

Photometer for the Determination of Color and Total Phenols in Wine
Analytical techniques have become a valuable tool of modern wine makers. The definition and the processing techniques to obtain the desired wine color are of key importance. The right decisions taken during maturation of the grapes, processing, aging and blending, all strongly influence the final resulting wine color.
The color of wine is always read after removal of suspended matter. There are mainly two color components present, yellow and red but also a blue or green hue may appear. The color hue is the ratio between the yellow color concentrations over the red one, and is an indication about the degree of evolution.

Photometer for the Determination of Concentration of Reducing Sugars
The determination of concentration of reducing sugars (RS) is one of the most important parameters that need to be measured during the wine making process. Following the increase of RS during maturation of grapes can help decide when to start harvest. Having the highest possible sugar content is important because this is the main parameter that defines the commercial value of grapes. During the alcoholic fermentation instead, the decrease of sugars can be followed to decide when fermentation is completed, or allows the taking of corrective actions if the content of RS is too low to obtain the desired alcohol degree or sweetness.

Photometer for the Determination of Tartaric Acid in Wine
Tartaric acid and tartrate play an important role in the stability of wines. They can be present in wine and juice in various forms, like tartaric acid (H2T), potassium bi-tartrate (KHT) or calcium tartrate (CaT). The ratio of these depends mainly on the pH of the wine. The percent of tartrate present as bitartrate (HT-) is maximum at pH 3.7.
The formation of crystalline deposits (tartrate casse) is a phenomenon of wine aging that does not meet customer acceptance. It is therefore important to test for, and to reduce the potential of bottle precipitation. For example, by adjusting the pH of the wine, winemakers can significantly influence the potential of casse formation.

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